Bảng phân loại
thống kê quốc tế
và các vấn đề sức khỏe liên quan
phiên bản 10
International Statistiscal Classsification of Diseases and Related Health
10th revision, (ICD 10)
Classification Statistique Internationale
et des Problèmes de Santé Connexes
10ème révision (CIM 10)
Tổ chức Sức khỏe thế giới
chương - Chapters - Chapitres
Etendue des codes
Titre du chapitre
nhiễm trùng và kư sinh trùng
||Certain infectious and parasitic diseases
||Certaines maladies infectieuses et parasitaires
của máu, cơ quan tạo máu và các
rối loạn liên quan đến cơ
chế miễn dịch
||Diseases of the blood & blood forming organs
and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
||Maladies du sang et des organes
hematopoietiques et certains troubles du systeme
nội tiết, dinh dưỡng và
||Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
||Maladies endocriniennes, nutritionnelles et
loạn tâm thần và hành vi
||Mental and behavioural disorders
||Troubles mentaux et du comportement
hệ thần kinh
||Diseases of the nervous system
||Maladies du systeme nerveux
mắt và phần phụ
||Diseases of the eye and adnexa
||Maladies de l'oeil et de ses annexes
của tai và xương chũm
||Diseases of the ear and mastoid process
||Maladies de l'oreille et de l'apophyse mastoïde
hệ tuần hoàn
||Diseases of the circulatory system
||Maladies de l'appareil circulatoire
hệ hô hấp
||Diseases of the respiratory system
|Maladies de l'appareil respiratoire
|Bệnh hệ tiêu hóa
Diseases of the digestive system
|Maladies de l'appareil digestif
|Các bệnh da và mô dưới da
Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
|Maladies de la peau et du tissu cellulaire sous-cutané
|Bệnh của hệ cơ-xương-khớp
mô liên kết
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Maladies du système ostéo-articulaire,
des muscles et du tissu conjonctif
hệ sinh dục-tiết niệu
||Diseases of the genitourinary system
||Maladies de l'appareil génito-urinaire
nghén, sinh đẻ và hậu sản
||Pregnancy, childbirth and pueperium
||Grossesse, accouchement et puerperalite
|Một số bệnh lư xuất phát trong thời kỳ chu sinh
||Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period
||Certaines affections dont l'origine se situe dans
la periode perinatale
tật bẩm sinh, biến dạng
và bất thường về nhiễm
|Congenital malformations, deformations & chromosomal
||Malformations congenitales et anomalies
triệu chứng, dấu hiệu và
những biểu hiện lâm sàng, cận lâm
sàng bất thường, không phân loại
ở phần khác
||Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical & laboratory findings
||Symptomes, signes et resultats anormaux d'examens
cliniques et de laboratoire, non classes ailleurs
thương ngộ độc
và hậu quả của một số nguyên
nhân bên ngoài
|Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external
||Lésions traumatiques, empoisonnements et
certaines autres consequences de causes externes
nguyên nhân ngoại sinh của bệnh và
||External causes of morbidity and mortality
||Causes externes de morbidite et de mortalite
yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến
t́nh trạng sức khỏe và tiếp xúc
dịch vụ y tế
||Factors affecting health status and contact with health
influant sur l'état de santé et motifs de recours aux
services de santé
is International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10)?
to translate diagnoses and other health problems from words into an
code, which permits easy storage,retrieval and analysis of data.
is a Disease Classification?
It is a system that permits the assignment of codes to diseases
and to causes of death according to established criteria, providing
coherent grouping of condition.
by ICD-10 is the assignment of an alphanumeric code for a diagnostic
statement, related health condition, or cause of death as identified by
the health care provider.
Converting diagnostic and cause of death statements to a set of
alphanumeric codes provides a means for producing statistical tabulation
measurements of the health status of a country’s population;
data for monitoring and evaluating health care provided at
individual health care facilities, locally and nationally;
for identification of problem areas that may require expansion of
health care as well as areas in health status that require new
There are three (3) volumes
It is an alphanumeric listing of diseases and disease groups
along with inclusion and
an introduction to and instructions on how to use Volumes 1 and 3;
guidelines for certification and rules in mortality coding;
guidelines for recording and coding morbidity cases.
It is a comprehensive Alphabetical Index of
diseases and conditions found in the Tabular List.
There are 21 chapters:
Most of the chapters are associated
with particular body systems, special diseases or external factors.
There is, however, one exception which is Chapter XVII
“Symptoms, Signs and Abnormal Clinical and Laboratory Findings, not
elsewhere classified”. The
number of categories assigned to a Chapter is influenced by the number
of diseases and conditions that fall within the scope of the Chapter.
The structure of the ICD-10 code is alphanumeric:
first character of the code is an alpha character followed by 2, 3 or 4
structure of the 3 character category is:
3 character categories are further subdivided into sub-categories to
enable coding of a disease or condition as specifically as possible.
Conventions of the
ICD-10 follows certain conventions in order to provide information in a
consistent manner. ICD-10
Conventions fall into several categories namely:
Use of additional code
Due to/resulting to
diagnostic statements and case notes to identify main condition and the
diagnosis that meet the criteria for reporting;
the lead term and related sub-terms in Volume 3.
all cross reference terms such as:
requires the coder to refer to another suggested term
indicates that another lead term must be used
directs the coder to consider another main term within the index which
may provide the specificity required.
to the Tabular List to verify the code;
ASSIGN THE CODE.
Training Offered by
for Non-Coders (3 days)
for Coders (5 days)
on ICD-10(1 day)
more information, please contact:
Risk Assessment and Evaluation (SRE) Division
Nos. 743-8301 loc. 1900-1907
Development of classification systems
1998 Medical Journal of Australia)
|Linnaeus (1707-1778) created
classification systems to name animals by genus and species and
introduced a plant classification of 24 classes.1
He also created a medical classification Genera morborum.
François Bossier de Lacroix (Sauvages)
(1706-1777) founded medical classification. His systematic work Nosologia
methodica superseded Linnaeus' medical classification.
William Farr (1807-1883) proposed
a classification of causes of death which was modified and adopted by
the International Statistical Congress in 1855.
Jacques Bertillon (1851-1922)
chaired a committee which developed the Bertillon classification of
causes of death using Farr's principle of classifying diseases by
site. It was adopted in 1893 and further revised in 1900, 1910 and 1920
as the International list of causes of death.2
From 1900, classifications of diseases for morbidity reporting purposes
were integrated into the causes of death classification.
World Health Organization (WHO) The
manual of the international classification of diseases (ICD), injuries
and causes of death was adopted internationally in 1948 by the First
World Health Assembly. This was the sixth revision of the original
classification. The 10th revision, the International statistical
classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD-10), was
adopted in 1993.
One of the methods of relaying health information is through a
standard and uniform collection of data on morbidity, mortality, and other
conditions using the accepted set of classified lists (1). Through such lists,
the varied disease phenomena could be clustered into a well-defined set of
categories. The need to use is international classification to report diseases
materialised only a century or so ago (2).
Careful description of clinical phenomena that lies at the
heart of clinical medicine helped to delineate the distinct syndromes in the
earliest developments of medical sciences. Those recognised symptoms and
syndromes were the basis for the first classification systems until they were
more or less replaced by anatomical and then by etiological classification.
Although etiological classification is the best way to classify diseases for
well-recognised reasons, syndrome and anatomical disease classifications are
still in use due to the incomplete comprehension of causes of diseases.
The initial driving force behind the development of a
classification system was the need for collecting statistical information on
causes of death. If we go back to the 17th century where we find the
inception of more practical and uniform grouping of disease phenomena, John
Graunt was the first to start the statistical study of disease in under-six
children with the intention of tabulating the causes of death (2). A subsequent
attempt to classify diseases was made by Francois Bossier de Lacroix and William
Farr (2). The facilitation of nosological uniformity began receiving
international backing, as it would naturally deserve, in the 19th century.
Of much interest would be the introduction of the ICD system and especially the
6th revision that was produced by the WHO in 1948 (2) extending its
list to include non-fatal conditions which evidently implied the inclusion of
other categories like mental illnesses. The 7th revision of the ICD
was made in 1955, while the 8th and 9th revisions took
place in 1965 and 1975, respectively. The latest revision, i.e., ICD-10, was
released in 1992 (3). It is composed of 10 alphanumeric groups (4), one or more
alphabets representing every chapter. Each alphabet stands for a similar group
of diseases, disorders or conditions while two digits follow the alphabet. The
next two digits after the dot designate subdivisions. For instance, the ICD-10
designates the letter ‘F’ for mental and behavioural disorders. ‘F20’
would represent the severe mental illness, schizophrenia. To add a specifier
would require additional codes. Thus a
paranoid type of schizophrenia with continuous course would be
coded as ‘F20.00’(3). It should also be noted that the ICD has varying
details for different users.
There are other methods of classification for local use. Among
these the American Psychiatric association has a well developed one called
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). This manual first
appeared in 1952, shortly after WHO’s ICD-6. The last edition, DSM-IV (7),
came into use in 1994. It is multi-axial and has been adopted by many countries.
1. Kendell RE. Diagnosis and classification. In: RE Kendell,
AK Zealley eds. Companion to psychiatric Studies 5th ed. Edinburgh,
Churchill Livingstone, 1993:277-294
2. WHO. Manual for international Classification of diseases,
8th revision, Geneva, 1965.
3. WHO. Manual for International Classification of diseases
and health related Problems, 10th revision, Geneva, 1992.
4. Sartorius N, et al, Progress toward achieving a common
Language in Psychiatry, results from the field trial of the clinical guidelines
Accompanying the WHO classification of mental and Behavioural disorders in
ICD-10. Arch Gen Psychiartry 1993;50:115-124.
5. Ministry of Health. Summary report on Outpatient Visits
1983, Planning and Programming Department, May 1993.
6. Alem A, Desta M and Araya M. Mental health in Ethiopia.
Ethiop J Health Dev. 1995;9:47-62.
7. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and
statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC,
American psychiatric association, 1994.
8. Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital Records, 1948-1998.
9. Ministry of Health Manpower Study in Ethiopia, Addis
Ababa, United Printers, 1980;36-42.
10. Jansson B, Johansson LA, Rosen M, Svanstrom L. National
adaptation of ICD rules for classification- a Problem in the evaluation of
Cause-of death Trends. J Clin Epidemilo 1997;50(4):367-375.
(From: Conforming to the international
classification of diseases: A critique on health information reporting system in
Daniel Fekadu, Abebaw Fekadu, Atalay Alem