Cup

A simple plastic measuring cup, capable of holding the volume one cup.

The cup is a customary unit of measurement for volume, used in cooking to measure liquids (fluid measurement) and bulk foods such as granulated sugar (dry measurement). This measure is usually used as an informal unit in cooking recipes where precision is rarely required, rather than as a measure for the sale of foodstuffs.

Actual cups used in a household in any country may differ from the cup size used for recipes; standard measuring cups, often calibrated in fluid measure and weights of usual dry ingredients as well as in cups, are available.

 

There is no internationally-agreed standard definition of the cup, whose modern volume ranges between 200 and 284 millilitres.[nb 1] In some countries, there is no formal definition at all of how much 1 cup is; for example, in German recipes it will simply refer to an amount that roughly fits into a typical teacup. The cup sizes generally used in Commonwealth countries and the United States differ by up to 44 mL (1.5 fl oz).

No matter what size cup is used, the ingredients of a recipe measured with the same size cup will have their volumes in the same proportion to one another. The relative amounts to ingredients measured differently (by weight, or by different measures of volume such as teaspoons, etc.) may be affected by the definitions used.

Metric cup

In Commonwealth of nations (such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Indian Subcontinent, South Africa, ...), Latin America and Lebanon one cup is commonly defined as 250 millilitres.

1 metric cup 

=

250

millilitres

 

=

1623

international tablespoons (15 mL each)

 

=

12.5

Australian tablespoons

 

8.80

imperial fluid ounces

 

8.45

U.S. customary fluid ounces

United States customary cup

United States customary cup is defined as half a U.S. pint.

1 U.S. customary cup 

=

116

U.S. customary gallon

 

=

14

U.S. customary quart

 

=

12

U.S. customary pint

 

=

8

U.S. customary fluid ounces

 

=

16

U.S. customary tablespoons[nb 2]

 

236.5882365

millilitres[nb 3]

 

1523

international tablespoons

 

11.75

Australian tablespoons

 

0.833

imperial cups

 

8.33

imperial fluid ounces

United States "legal" cup

The cup currently used in the United States for nutrition labeling is defined in United States law as 240 mL.[1][2][3]

1 U.S. "legal" cup 

=

240

millilitres

 

=

16

international tablespoons

 

=

12

Australian tablespoons

 

8.12

U.S. customary fluid ounces

 

8.45

imperial fluid ounces

Imperial cup

The imperial cup, unofficially defined as half an imperial pint, is rarely found today. It may still appear on older kitchen utensils and in older recipe books.

1 imperial cup 

=

0.5

imperial pints

 

=

2

imperial gills

 

=

10

imperial fluid ounces

 

=

284

millilitres

 

19

international tablespoons[4][5]

 

14.25

Australian tablespoons[6]

 

1.20

U.S. customary cups

 

9.61

U.S. customary fluid ounces

Japanese cup

The Japanese cup is currently defined as 200 mL.

1 Japanese cup 

=

200

millilitres

 

7.04

imperial fluid ounces

 

6.76

U.S. customary fluid ounces

The traditional Japanese cup, the , is approximately 180 mL. 10 make one shō, the traditional flask size, approximately 1.8 litres. cups are typically used for measuring rice, and sake is typically sold by the cup (180 mL), the bottle (720 mL), and flask (1.8 litre) sizes. Note modern sake bottle sizes are almost the same as the 750 mL standard for wine bottles, but are divisible into 4 gō.

1  

=

240113310

litres[nb 4]

 

180

millilitres

 

6.35

imperial fluid ounces

 

6.10

U.S. customary fluid ounces

Using volume measures to estimate mass

In Europe, cooking recipes normally state any liquid volume larger than a few tablespoons in millilitres, the scale found on most measuring cups worldwide. Non-liquid ingredients are normally weighed in grams instead, using a kitchen scale, rather than measured in cups. Most recipes in Europe use the millilitre or decilitre (1 dL = 100 mL) as a measure of volume. For example, where an American customary recipe might specify "1 cup of sugar and 2 cups of milk", a European recipe might specify "200 g sugar and 500 mL of milk" (or 0.5 litre or 5 decilitres).[citation needed] Conversion between the two measures must take into account the density of the ingredients. Many European measuring cups have additional scales for common bulk ingredients like sugar, flour, or rice to make the process easier.

Volume to mass conversions for some common cooking ingredients

ingredient

density
g/mL
[nb 5]

metric cup

imperial cup

U.S. customary cup

g

oz

g

oz

g

oz

water[7]

1[nb 6]

249–250

8.8

283–284

10

236–237

8.3[nb 7]

granulated sugar

0.8[8]

200

7.0

230

8.0

190

6.7

wheat flour

0.5–0.6[8]

120–150

4.4–5.3

140–170

5.0–6.0

120–140

4.2–5.0

table salt

1.2[8]

300

10.6

340

12.0

280

10.0

 

Notes

  1. ^ Cup sizes in recipes are not necessarily the same as customary serving sizes for beverages. For example, a cup of brewed coffee in the U.S. is typically 6 U.S. fluid ounces (180 mL).

  2. ^ 1 U.S. customary cup = 16 tablespoons exactly using the old U.S. customary tablespoon of 12 U.S. fl oz.

  3. ^ exactly

  4. ^ by 1891 definition

  5. ^ One gram per millilitre is very close to one avoirdupois ounce per fluid ounce: 1 g/mL ≈ 1.002 av oz/imp fl oz This is not a numerical coincidence, but comes from the original definition of the kilogram as the mass of one litre of water, and the imperial gallon as the volume occupied by ten avoirdupois pounds of water. The slight difference is due to water at 4 °C (39 °F) being used for the kilogram, and at 62 °F (17 °C) for the imperial gallon. The U.S. fluid ounce is slightly larger.

1 g/mL ≈ 1.043 av oz/U.S. fl oz

  1. ^ The density of water ranges from about 0.96 to 1.00 g/mL dependent on temperature and pressure. The table above assumes a temperature range 0–30 °C (32–86 °F). The variation is too small to make any difference in cooking.

  2. ^ Since an imperial cup of water weighs approximately 10 avoirdupois ounces and five imperial cups are approximately equal to six U.S. cups, one U.S. cup of water weighs approximately 813 avoirdupois ounces.

[edit] References

  1. ^ (21 CFR 101.9 (b) (5) (viii)

  2. ^ U.S. Government Printing Office—Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

  3. ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration—Guidelines for Determining Metric Equivalents of Household Measures

  4. ^ In the absence of measuring cups, tablespoons can be used for volume measurement.

  5. ^ The term international tablespoon as used in this article refers to the 15 mL (~0.5 fl oz) tablespoon used in most countries.

  6. ^ The Australia tablespoon is defined as 20 mL (~23 fl oz)

  7. ^ 1 g/mL is a good rough guide for water-based liquids such as milk (the density of milk is about 1.03–1.04 g/mL).

  8. ^ a b c L. Fulton, E. Matthews, C. Davis: Average weight of a measured cup of various foods. Home Economics Research Report No. 41, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, 1977.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cup_(unit)&oldid=489721534"

 ***

Measuring cups usually have capacities from 250  ml (approx. 1 cup (volume) to 1000  ml (approx. 4 cups = 2 pints = 1 quart), though larger sizes are also available for commercial use. They usually have scale markings at different heights: the substance being measured is added to the cup until it reaches the wanted level. Dry measure cups without a scale are sometimes used, in sets typically of 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 cup. The units may be milliliters or fractions of a liter, or (specially in the United States and Australia[citation needed]) the cup (unit) with its fractions (typically 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, and 3/4), pints, and often fluid ounces. Sometimes multiples of teaspoons and tablespoons are included. There may also be scales for the approximate weight for particular substances, such as flour and sugar.

The Cup unit is different in USA, Europe and Japan.

 

 


Butter

 

If you know a cup of butter weighs 8 ounces, you could do the math yourself:

1 ounce = 28.34 grams, so one cup of butter weighs 227 grams.

1/4 cup of butter = 57 g
1/3 cup of butter = 76 g
1/2 cup of butter = 113 g

 


Dry Goods

 

All-Purpose Flour and Confectioners' Sugar

 

Cups

 Grams

 Ounces

 1/8 cup
(2 Tablespoons)
 

 16 g

 .563 oz

 1/4 cup

 32 g

 1.13 oz

 1/3 cup

 43 g

 1.5 oz

 1/2 cup

 64 g

 2.25 oz

 2/3 cup

 85 g

 3 oz

 3/4 cup

 96 g

 3.38 oz

 1 cup

 128 g

 4.5 oz

 

Bread Flour

 

 Cups

 Grams

 Ounces

1/4 cup

 34 g

 1.2 oz

1/3 cup

 45 g

 1.6 oz

1/2 cup

 68 g

 2.4 oz

1 cup

 136 g

 4.8 oz

Rolled Oats

 

 Cups

 Grams

 Ounces

 1/4 c

 21 g

 .75 oz

 1/3 c

 28 g

 1 oz

 1/2 c

 43 g

 1.5 oz

 1 c

 85 g

 3 oz

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

White Sugar (Granulated)

 

 Cups

 Grams

 Ounces

 2 Tbsp

 25 g

 .89 oz

 1/4 cup

 50 g

 1.78 oz

 1/3 cup

 67 g

 2.37 oz

 1/2 cup

 100 g

 3.55 oz

 2/3 cup

 134 g

 4.73 oz

 3/4 cup

 150 g

 5.3 oz

 1 cup

 201 g

 7.1 oz

 

Packed Brown Sugar

 

 Cups

 Grams

 Ounces

 1/4 c

 55 g

 1.9 oz

 1/3 c

 73 g

 2.58 oz

 1/2 c

 110 g

 3.88 oz

 1 c

 220 g

 7.75 oz

 

 

 

 


 

 

Honey, Molasses & Syrup

 

 Cups

 Grams

 Ounces

 2 Tbsp

 43 g

 1.5 oz

 1/4 c

 85 g

 3 oz

 1/3 c

 113 g

 4 oz

 1/2 c

 170 g

 6 oz

 2/3 c

 227 g

 8 oz

 3/4 c

 255 g

 9 oz

 1 c

 340 g

 12 oz